The Elastic Guru

The Elastic Guru is a community of amazing AWS enthusiasts

We're a place where friendly AWS peeps create, read and share content to ignite curiosity, learning, growth and success in young people, students and others.

Create new account Log in
loading...

Building Modern Serverless API's with AWS: DynamoDB, Lambda, and API Gateway(Part 5)

Ro
I am a software developer living in Cameroon. I build stuff that's easy to use and aesthetically beautiful. I love serverless technologies, SVG and technical writing.
・6 min read

Welcome to the last part in "Building Modern Serverless API's with AWS" series.
Here's a recap of what we've done so far.

In Part 1 of this series, we modeled and designed access patterns for our application entities.

In Part 2, we designed the primary key and Global Secondary Index, created a sample database schema using NoSql Workbench, and saw clearly each access pattern for our app.


In Part 3, we started coding up our API. We created a project using SAM and wrote a couple of scripts to Create a user, Get a user by ID and also create a post

In Part 4, we created scripts to update posts, fetch all posts by a given user, thereby returning a multi Entity response. We built and deployed our API with SAM. And tested some of the API endpoints using PostMan.



In this post, we would write and tests scripts for

  • Create Comments
  • Query Comments for a given post
  • Query Posts with a given status. (Global Secondary Index)

Create Comment

One of the access patterns for our API was to be able to add comments to a post. It's a social media API, at least, that should be possible.
Create a file in the comments folder called create.py and type in the following code

import json
import logging
import os
import time
import uuid
import boto3

dynamodb = boto3.resource('dynamodb')


def create_comment(event, context):
    data = json.loads(event['body'])
    if 'commentText' not in data:
        logging.error("Validation Failed")
        raise Exception("Couldn't create a comment")

    timestamp = str(time.time())

    table = dynamodb.Table(os.environ['TABLE_NAME'])

    item = {
        'PK': "POST#{}#{}".format(data['postId'],data['timestamp']),
        'SK': "COMMENT#{}#{}".format(str(uuid.uuid1()),timestamp),
        'commentId': str(uuid.uuid1()),
        'postId': data['postId'],
        'userId': data['userId'],
        'commentText': data['commentText'],
        'status': data['status'],
        'createdOn': timestamp

    }

    # write the post to the database
    table.put_item(Item=item)

    # create a response
    response = {
        "statusCode": 200,

        "body": json.dumps(item)
    }

    return response

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Nothing new to talk about. It's the same as Create User or Create Post. Maybe take note of the PK and SK values.

Here's how you configure the CreateCommentFunction in the SAM template.yaml file.

 CreateCommentFunction:
    Type: AWS::Serverless::Function # More info about Function Resource: https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model/blob/master/versions/2016-10-31.md#awsserverlessfunction
    Properties:
      CodeUri: comments/
      Handler: create.create_comment
      Runtime: python3.8
      Policies:
        - DynamoDBCrudPolicy:
            TableName: data

      Events:
        HttpPost:
          Type: Api # More info about API Event Source: https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model/blob/master/versions/2016-10-31.md#api
          Properties:
            Path: /comment
            Method: post
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Fetch Comments For Posts

Being able to see comments made under a post is the sweetest part of any social media application. Create a file in the posts folder called get_comments_post.py and type in this code

import os
import json
import boto3
import decimalencoder
from botocore.exceptions import ClientError
from boto3.dynamodb.conditions import Key

dynamodb = boto3.resource('dynamodb')


def get_post_comments(event, context):
    # print(event)
    # print(event['pathParameters'])
    print("print this ")
    table = dynamodb.Table(os.environ['TABLE_NAME'])

    postId = 'POST#{}#{}'.format(event['pathParameters']['id'],event['pathParameters']['timestamp'])

    print(postId)

    result = table.query(
        KeyConditionExpression=
        Key('PK').eq(postId),
        ScanIndexForward=True
    )
    # create a response


    response = {
        "statusCode": 200,
        "body": json.dumps(result["Items"],
                           cls=decimalencoder.DecimalEncoder)

    }
    print(response)
    print("Query successful.")
    return response


Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

At the very top of the script, we import boto3 and a couple of utility classes that we'll be needed in our script. Next, we get the post id sent through the API endpoint. We query our table while assigning a key condition expression that gets all comments for any post whose ID is equal to the postId + timestamp sent through the API endpoint.


Then we configure the function in the SAM template.yaml like so

GetPostCommentsFunction:
    Type: AWS::Serverless::Function # More info about Function Resource: https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model/blob/master/versions/2016-10-31.md#awsserverlessfunction
    Properties:
      CodeUri: posts/
      Handler: get_comments_post.get_post_comments
      Runtime: python3.8
      Policies:
        - DynamoDBCrudPolicy:
            TableName: data

      Events:
        HttpPost:
          Type: Api # More info about API Event Source: https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model/blob/master/versions/2016-10-31.md#api
          Properties:
            Path: /posts/{id}/{timestamp}/comments
            Method: get
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Fetch Posts by Status

When we modeled our data, we assigned a status attribute to the post entity. When a post is created, the status = created. When it's updated or deleted, status equals updated or deleted respectively.


One of the access patterns for our API was to get all posts by status. The status value is set to created when a post is created, updated when a post is updated, and deleted when a post has been deleted.


However, the status attribute is neither a Partition nor a Sort Key. So by default, we can't use it to query anything. But, by creating a Global Secondary Index(GSI) with the status as Hash Key, we create a possibility to retrieve all created or updated, or deleted posts.


While creating the database table in Part 2, we created a GSI for status. Here's how it looked like.

GlobalSecondaryIndexes:
        - IndexName: "GSI1"
          KeySchema:
            - AttributeName: "status"
              KeyType: "HASH"
          Projection:
            ProjectionType: "ALL"
          ProvisionedThroughput:
            ReadCapacityUnits: "1"
            WriteCapacityUnits: "1"



Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

The Global Secondary Index name is "GSI1". The status is a HASH Key.


With that in place, let's look at the script.
Create a file called fetch_posts_by_status.py inside the posts folder and add type in the following code.

import os
import json
import boto3
import decimalencoder
from botocore.exceptions import ClientError
from boto3.dynamodb.conditions import Key

dynamodb = boto3.resource('dynamodb')


def fetch_post(event, context):
    # print(event)
    # print(event['pathParameters'])
    print("print this ")
    table = dynamodb.Table(os.environ['TABLE_NAME'])

    result = table.query(
        IndexName="GSI1",
        KeyConditionExpression=
        Key('status').eq(event['pathParameters']['status']),
        ScanIndexForward=True
    )
    # create a response

    response = {
        "statusCode": 200,
        "body": json.dumps(result["Items"],
                           cls=decimalencoder.DecimalEncoder)

    }
    print(response)
    print("Query successful.")
    return response

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Take note of the query IndexName. That's the index name we set when we created the GSI above.

Lets now declare this function in the SAM template.yaml file.

FetchPostsByStatusFunction:
    Type: AWS::Serverless::Function # More info about Function Resource: https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model/blob/master/versions/2016-10-31.md#awsserverlessfunction
    Properties:
      CodeUri: posts/
      Handler: fetch_posts_by_status.fetch_post
      Runtime: python3.8
      Policies:
        - DynamoDBCrudPolicy:
            TableName: data

      Events:
        HttpPost:
          Type: Api # More info about API Event Source: https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model/blob/master/versions/2016-10-31.md#api
          Properties:
            Path: /posts/status/{status}
            Method: get
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

And that's all. Be sure to grab the complete code from Github.
https://github.com/trey-rosius/modern_serverless_api

You can go-ahead to build and deploy the API.

sam build --use-container
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
sam deploy --guided
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

As always, I do my testing with Postman.

Create Comment Testing

endpoint ../comment

Screen Shot 2021-04-30 at 09.17.24.png

Fetch Post Comments Test

endpoint .../posts/2b8fcd75-a866-11eb-bf52 3f824b791a34/1619644233.5907042/comments

Screen Shot 2021-04-30 at 09.37.17.png

Fetch Post by status Test

endpoint ..../posts/status/created

Screen Shot 2021-04-30 at 09.39.00.png



Complete Source Code

Conclusion

That's all folks. In this series, we looked at

  • Modeling Entities
  • Design and Creating Access Patterns for Entities
  • DynamoDB single table design
  • Performing CRUD operations on a DynamoDb table.
  • Creating and Querying a Global Secondary Index
  • Building a serverless API with SAM.
  • Testing the API with Postman.

I had lots of fun creating this series and I do hope you felt the same, reading and practicing along.
I'm still working on my blogging/teaching skills, so if I didn't explain some concepts in a cool and detailed manner, please bear with me I'll get better with time.

If you loved this series, please leave feedback or like. Also, do leave feedback, in case you find mistakes. I'll be happy to correct them.

In the next article, we'll consume this API in a mobile and web application. So stay tuned.
Till next time, my brothers and sisters ✌🏿

Discussion (0)

Forem Open with the Forem app